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《论语诠解英文版》——Chapter I "学而"(Xue'er)

The title of this chapter consists of two characters, "学而" (xue'er), which were selected from the first line of the chapter: "学而时习之,不亦说乎?” This strategy of using one or two characters from the first lines of an essay or a book as the title for the work is typical of classical writings in ancient China. The following chapters in the Analects all employ this style.

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《论语诠解英文版》——Chapter II "为政" (Weizheng)

This chapter, which consists of 24 sections, discusses the art of governance in its various aspects. Good government is, according to Confucius, one that governs with moral exemplars and benevolence. More specifically, good government guides people with the rules of propriety and thus boosts their morale. This chapter also reveals Confucius'thoughts on learning, self­ cultivation, filial piety, and fraternal duties.

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《论语诠解英文版》——CHAPTER III "八价" (Bayi)

" A f付" (Bayi) was an imperial dance format, officially prescribed only for the royal family in the court during the Zhou Dynasty (11th cent. -221 BCE).

Consisting of 26 sections, this chapter focuses primarily on the topic of the rules of propriety and institutional rituals, as well as the critical importance of preserving and enacting these rituals in maintaining social stability as Confucius perceived it. This idea is best illustrated in his argument of how a prince should employ his ministers and how a minister should serve his prince: "The prince should employ his ministers in accordance  with  the rites of propriety, whereas ministers should serve their prince with allegiance and faithfulness" ("君使臣以礼, 臣事君以忠 jun shT chen yT IT, c 庙 n shl jun yT zhong") (Section 3.19).

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《论语诠解英文版》——Chapter IV "里仁" (Liren)

The two characters "里仁,(IT 伦 n) were taken from the first section in the chapter: 里仁为美, meaning "What makes a neighborhood excellent and beautiful is its decency of virtue."

Chapter IV consists of twenty-six sections, and covers a wide range of topics including righteousness, profitability, morality, cultivation, filial piety, while examining the differences between 君子Junzi (the noble man of true virtue) and 小人xiaoren (the mean man of moral degradedness and narrow-mind­edness). This chapter is especially significant because it discusses several of the most important issues and concepts of Confucianism.

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《论语诠解英文版》——Chapter VI "雍也" (Yongye)

"雍Yong" was a disciple of Confucius. As mentioned in our discussion of Chapter I, the strategy of using one or two characters from the first line of an essay or a book as the title for the work is characteristic of classical Chinese writing and this chapter features the same style. Chapter Six has thirty sec­ tions and in it, Confucius discusses, among other important ideas, the doc­ trine of the mean, his thoughts on forgiveness, and the dialectic relationship between form and substance, as well as beliefs concerning moral develop­ment and self-cultivation.

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《论语诠解英文版》——Chapter VI "述而" (Shu'er)

This chapter has thirty-eight sections and focuses on Confucius'discussions on the concepts of virtue, benevolence, self-cultivation, learning and educa­ tion. That this chapter is frequently quoted by Confucian scholars through­ out Chinese history indicates its importance. Two of the most memorable quotes from this chapter are "三人行必有我师 的n 怡n xfng, bl you w6 shT''which translates as "Of any group of three people, there must be some­ one whose virtue and integrity I can learn" and "学而不厌, 诲人不倦 xue er bu yon, hu T 诧 n bu juan" meaning "to study hard without surfeit; to teach others without indolence." With many other popular quotes from the Analects, these have become inspiring maxims for the Chinese people over the past two millennia.

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《论语诠解英文版》——Chapter VIII"泰伯" (Taibo)

This chapter consists of twenty-one sections, in which Confucius extols the Sage Emperors Yao, Shun, and Yu, whom he considered to be morally con­ summate. Additionally, Confucius elaborates on his ideas regarding educa­ tion and learning. The chapter also discusses the views of Zeng Zi, an emi­ nent disciple of Confucius, which emphasizes the importance of acting out the fundamental Confucian concepts of filial piety, faithfulness, trustworthi­ ness, and forgiveness, as well as self-cultivation and self-rectification.

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《论语诠解英文版》——Chapter IX"子罕" (Zihan)

As in other chapters of the Analects, this one starts with the chapter's first two characters "子罕 ' (Zihan) as its title. Literarily " 子罕 ' (Zihan) means "seldom did and/or seldom does Confucius do ... " Consisting of thirty- one sections, this chapter focuses primarily on the philosophy of Confucian education. In addition, it also records some of the significant activities of Confucius, as well as many of the comments his disciples exchanged among themselves, which praised and extolled their Master. Some of the quotes from this chapter, such as "三军可夺帅, 匹夫不可夺志也son jun ke du6      shuai, pT fCi bu ke du6 zh1 y色" (A large army may be powerful, but its commander can be snatched away. A common person, though one of the lowliest, cannot be forced to change his will), have become, over the passage of time, well-known maxims of moral integrity and wisdom for the Chinese.

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《论语诠解英文版》——Chapter X"乡党" (Xiangdang)

This chapter starts with the two characters "乡党"(Xiangda ng) which ap­ pear in the first line of Section 1, and translate as "hometown." Consisting of 27 sections, the chapter describes Confucius as a man of perfect virtue who conducts himself in accordance with the rites of propriety一especially in regard to the way he pays tribute to princes, interacts with ministers, and deals with his mission as a diplomatic envoy. In addition, the chapter also records various aspects of Confucius'daily habits such as eating, dressing, resting, and interacting with friends. This presents the reader with a man of benevolence and moral character who maintains consistent patterns of virtu­ ous behavior across a wide range of situations in everyday life.

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《论语诠解英文版》——Chapter XI"先进" (Xianjin)

The title "先进" (Xianjin) comes from the first line of Section 1. Literarily, the two characters "先进" (Xianjin) translate as "predecessor." Set against the context, they mean "those who studied rituals and music before becom­ ing officials." Consisting of twenty-six sections, this chapter illustrates, among others, the Confucian Doctrine of the Mean, or the Middle Way 中庸 Zhongyong", which is best seen in the statement "过犹不及 g uo  y6u bujf" (Going beyond is as undesirable as coming up short) (Section 16, Chapter XI). The chapter also records Confucius'discourse with his disciples about such important subjects as life and death, the present world and the other­ worldly, as well as the relationship between scholarship and officialdom.

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《论语诠解英文版》——Chapter XI"颜渊" (Yan Yuan)

This chapter was named after Yan Yuan, a favorite disciple of Confucius. His name was Yan Hui, and his courtesy name was 子渊 (Ziyuan). Yan Yuan (颜渊 ) is a combination of both his surname and his courtesy name. He also had an honorific name, 颜子 (Yan Zi), meaning Master Yan. Confucius was deeply impressed by Yan Yuan's unfailing enthusiasm for and commitment to learning and also by his exemplary conduct of virtue and benevolence. He was so grieved by Yan Yuan's early death that he sighed heavily, "Heaven is ruining me! Heaven is destroying me!" (Section 9, Chapter XI) Patronized by Emperor Gaozu, the founding emperor of the Han Dynasty (221-206 BC), Yan Yuan has since been venerated as one of the four sages in Confucius temples. The other three sages are: Zeng Zi ( 曾子),author of"《大学》 Daxue" (Great Learning); Zisi ( 子思),Confucius'  grandson and author of "《中庸 》Zhongyong" (Doctrine of the Mean); and Mencius (孟子), author of " 《孟子》 Mengzi" (Mencius).

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《论语诠解英文版》——Chapter XIII"千路" (Zilu)

This chapter was named after Zilu, one of Confucius'leading disciples. His name was Zhong You (仲由).Zilu (子路) and Jilu (季路) were his cour­ tesy names. Of Confucius'seventy-two disciples, Zilu perhaps had the most idiosyncratic character. Resolute, resourceful, faithful, filial, and courageous (if not entirely recklessly bold), Zilu impressed Confucius with his multitude of talents, particularly his determination and valor, although sometimes the Master appeared to have been annoyed by these same qualities. For example, frustrated that no princes had appreciated his ideas, Confucius complained 'lf my doctrines do not work. I shall get upon a raft on the sea and go abroad. I guess Zhong You will follow me." Hearing this, Zhong You was delighted. However, Confucius quickly added, "Nonetheless, You (Zhong You) is more daring than is required by the righteous, thus outrunning discretion."(Section 7, Chapter V) Elsewhere, when Confucius was commenting on some of his disciples, he had this to say about Zi Lu: "Zilu appeared resolute and coura­ geous … " But the Master also sighed, saying, "People like Zhong You may not die a natural death," because of his recklessness and temerity.

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《论语诠解英文版》——Chapter XIV"宪问" (Xianwen)

The title of this chapter is derived from the first two characters " 宪 问 ” (Xianwen) in the beginning line of the first section. " 宪 Xian" refers to "原宪 Yuan Xian" who was one of the major disciples of Confucius. "原宪Yuan Xian" had a courtesy name of "子思 Zisi". He was also known as "原思 Yuan Si" and "原仲宪 Yuan Zhongxian". It is traditionally believed that Yuan Xian compiled this chapter. Consisting of 44 sections, the chapter focuses on, among other important topics, the fine qualities of " 君子Junz i" and the concepts of justice and shame. One of the highlights of this chapter is Confucius'understanding of the relationship between righteousness and profit: "见利思义 jia n 11 s1 y1" (One can be a perfect man if he thinks of righteousness when he sees opportunities for personal gain.) and "义然后取 y1 r6n hou qu" (He accepts money and wealth only when it accords with the righteous, so that others would not loathe his doing so.) (Sections 12 & 13 of this chapter). These two quotes have since become maxims in Chinese culture.

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《论语诠解英文版》——Chapter XV'卫灵公" (Weilinggong)

This chapter uses " 卫 灵 公 Weilinggong"(Duke Ling of Wei) as its title. According to Confucius, Duke Ling of Wei was not a good prince, and this view has probably influenced historians'negative evaluation of him. For instance, in Chapter XIV, Confucius talked about how devious his actions were. Interestingly enough, though he was not a good ruler, Duke Ling of Wei knew how to employ talented ministers to assist him in governing the State of Wei. "He has employed Zhong Shuyu to handle diplomatic affairs and interact with guests, Zhu Tuo to manage ancestral temples and sacrificial ceremonies, and Wang Sunjia to command the military forces." They all did an excellent job, enabling the Wei government to function well. (Section 19, Chapter XIV) Consisting of 42 sections, this chapter further discusses various important aspects of "君子Junz i", Confucius'political thoughts and moral self-reflec­ tion, and his philosophy of education. The chapter also features a number of famous phrases that have become popular quotes, revealing truths about life and behavior, such as: “人能弘道, 非道弘人 伦n n的 g h6ng dao, fei dao h6ng r的 ."(It is men that make the Way great. It is not the Way that makes men great.) "己所不欲, 勿施千人 jT su6 bu yu, wu shT yu 伦 n." (What you do not want done to yourself, do not do to others.) "躬自厚而薄责千人,则 远怨矣 go ng zl hou er b6 ze yu r的 ,ze yuan yuan yT." (If a man reflects more on himself and requires less from others, he will be able to avoid resentment from others.)

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《论语诠解英文版》——Chapter  XVI"季氏" (Jishi)

The title of this chapter consists of two characters, " 季氏" (Jishi), which were selected from the first line of the chapter: "季氏将伐颜臾 jl shl jiang f6 zhuan yu." (Jishi was planning to attack Zhuanyu.)"季氏" (Jishi) refers to "季孙" (Ji Sun) who was the most powerful of the three aristocratic fami­ lies in the State of Lu, which controlled the government affairs. Jishi func­ tioned as a chief minister in Lu. Consisting of 14 sections, this chapter focuses on important ideas includ- ing government, politics, friendship, the principle of " 君子Junzi", equality, responsibilities of ministerial officials for their prince, etc.

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《论语诠解英文版》——Chapter XVII"阳货" (Yang Huo)

The two characters "阳货" (Yang Huo) were taken from the first line of the chapter. Yang Huo was a governor officer in the family of 季 孙 氏 (Jisun Shi), which was one of the three most powerful aristocratic families in the State of Lu and which controlled the governmental affairs. Because of his corrupted and devious moral character, Confucius disliked him and avoided meeting with him as much as he could. The chapter consists of twenty-six sections, covering a  wide  range  of  topics  including  Confucius'philosophy of moral education, his elaboration on the concept of "1 二 Ren" , the issue of the three-year mourning period that filial children should observe for their deceased parents, and the fundamental differences between " 君 子 Junz i" (the noble man of true virtue) and " 小 人 xiaoren" (the mean man of moral degradedness and narrow-mindedness). The chapter  also features  a  number of popular quotes such as: “性相近也, 习相远也 xlng xiang jln ye, xf xiang yuan y色" (Men are alike by nature, but learning of a later and subsequent time has made them increasingly different from each other.) “巧言令色, 鲜矣仁 q ia o y6n llng s色xia n yT r的 ." (True virtue has noth­ ing to do with adulatory words and a sycophantic appearance.) “君子有勇而无义为乱,小 人有勇而无义为盗 jun zT you y6ng er wu yl wei luan, xiao ren you y6ng er wu yl wei dao." (If the noble man were courageous but not righteous, he would be rebellious. If the mean man were courageous but not righteous, he would become an outlaw.)

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《论语诠解英文版》——Chapter XVIII 微子(Weizi)

The title of this chapter consists of two characters, "微子 Weizi," which were selected from the first line of the chapter. The focus of this chapter is on Confucius'discussion of how moral disintegration and the depraved government gave rise to a large number of "mad" hem讥s, sage recluses, and virtuous men who chose to sacrifice their own interests, and so on. The chapter concludes by highlighting Confucius'admiration and veneration for the Duke of Zhou with regard to how a supreme order of harmony may be achieved.

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《论语诠解英文版》——Chapter XIX "千张" (Zizhang)

This chapter uses Zizhang as the title. Zizhang was one of the major disci­ pies of Confucius and also one of the twelve most renowned Confucian phi­ losophers ( 孔门十二哲 k6 ng m的 s hf 扫 zh 句 after Confucius died in 479 BC. The chapter has 25 sections. The chapter is significant in that it shows the reader how Confucius'major disciples, such as Zizhang, Zixia, Zigong, Ziyou, and Zengzi, interacted with each other with regard to their different interpretations of the Master's teachings and how they each continued prac­ ticing and disseminating the Master's ideas in the post-Confucius period.

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《论语诠解英文版》——Chapter XX "尧曰" (Yao Yue)

This chapter starts with a statement made by the Sage Emperor Yao of an- tiquity, hence 尧 曰 (Yao Yue). Unlike other chapters in the Analects, this one consists of only three sections, albeit unusually lengthy ones, except for Section 20.3. As the concluding chapter of the book, these three sections are certainly significant. They reiterate the importance of recognizing the Man­ date of Heaven, observing the rites of propriety, and discerning others'speeches so as to better understand people. On a higher level, they help establish a meaningful perimeter: relations between man and Heaven (as guiding princi­ ples of ultimate morality and justice), between men, and man on terms with himself. As such, this chapter presents a nice summary of the Analects.

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