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《论语诠解英文版》——CHAPTER III "八价" (Bayi)

[3- 1] 孔子谓季氏, “八俏舞千庭,是可忍也,孰不可忍也?”

3.1 The Master, speaking about Jishi's use of eight rows of dancers, with eight dancers in each single file, "If he dares to do this, what else may he not dare to do?"

[Comment] "谓w创" means "to say, to speak, or to comment." " 季氏 j1

sh 1" is "季孙氏 j1 sun           sh1," who was a prime minister in the State of Lu and who was also the grandson of Duke Heng of Lu. "f 什 y1" refers to a dance format, while " 八 俏 ba y1" translates into the phrase "eight rows of dancers, with eight dancers in each single file." "庭 tf ng"      means "a yard in front of a hall."

[Reading] " 八 俏 Bayi" was an imperial dance format for the court of the Zhou. According to "The Rituals of the Zhou Dynasty," only the Zhou royal family was privileged with this "Eight Rows" dance format. Meanwhile, those in the rank of a prime minister, the rank that Jishi held, were only al­ lowed to use a "Four Rows" dance format. Here, Confucius was criticizing a low-level aristocrat like Jishi for inappropriately exercising the form of ceremonies reserved for the royal family, which was a gross transgression of the rites of propriety. In Confucius'view, it was this disregard of the rules of propriety of the Zhou ruling class and the defiance against the Zhou author­ ity that, among other things as was engaged by the peripheric realms - the warring city states, truly led to the disintegration of the Zhou power.

[3- 2] 三家者以《雍》彻。子曰: "`相维辟公,天子穆穆',奚取千三家之堂?”

1          .2 At the conclusion of the sacrificial ceremony when the vessels were be­ ing removed, the three families used the Ode of Yong. The Master said, "The Ode of Yong states that'The Son of Heaven looks magnificent, regal, and profound, with assistance from the princes and lords. Did we see anything like this in the hall of these three families?"'

[Com ment] "三家的n ji扩' refers to the families of "孟孙 m却 g s o n," " 叔孙s h□ sun," and " 季孙 jl sun," which were the three most prominent po-

litical families in the State of Lu. In addition, all members of these families were the decedents of the son of Duke Heng of Lu. " 彻 c he" is here used homophonically as "撤 c h色" meaning "to remove, to take away," while " 相啦 ng" implies"辅助 fu zhu" (to assist, to help out with). In the context, the word suggests "to assist in the sacrificial ceremony."" 辟公 b1 gong" refers to "feudal princes and lords" and "穆穆 m u mu" means "solemn, serious."

[Reading] "雍 Yong" was quoted from "《诗·周颂》s hT· zho u song" ("Eulogies of Zhou" from Classic of Odes). It was believed to be the ode sung by King Wu of Zhou when the sacrificial vessels were removed after the ancestral ceremonies to King Wen of Zhou were completed. As such, it was the royal song officially prescribed only for the King. The censuring remarks registered in the section show explicitly Confucius'indignation at the violation of the royal norm of proprieties by the families of " 孟 孙 m 的 g s un," " 叔孙s h O sun," and " 季孙 jl sun." Arguably, " 礼 IT " (the rules of propriety) constitutes one of the most important core values of Confucian thought. Social stability, according to Confucius, could be maintained only when the rules of propriety were respected and upheld accordingly.

[3- 3] 子曰:  “人而不仁,如礼何?人而不仁,如乐何?”

3.3       The Master said, "If a man has no true virtues, what does he have to do with rituals even if he practices them? If a man has no true virtues, what does he have to do with music even if he plays it?"

[Comment] With these remarks, Confucius alluded to the fact that the sig-

nificance of the rites of propriety 一 as well as the significance of music 一lies only in the possession of true virtues and ethical values. "不仁 bu r的" implies "without true virtues and benevolence," while " 女 O ru" can be trans­ lated as "so what."

[Reading] According to Confucius, the very essence of virtue  is, among others, " 午 L IT" (rituals) as well as a deferential exercise  of  it.  In addition, “ 乐 yue" (music) that could express and encourage virtue and morality, is viewed by Confucius as the externalization of ethical values. Like Plato, Confucius did not regard music as a neutral amusement. Rather, he believed music expresses dignity, benevolence and human  kindness.  Hence, it oc­ cupies a very important status in Confucian thought. For Confucius, a man without virtue has nothing to do with the rules of propriety and music.

[3- 4] 林放问礼之本。子曰:          “大哉问!礼,与其奢也,宁俭;丧, 与其易也,宁戚。"

3.4       Lin Fang asked the Master about the essence of ceremonies. To which the Master replied, "An excellent question indeed! In ceremonial rites, it is better to be economical than extravagant. In funeral ceremonies, it is better to show deep sorrow than to pay meticulous attention to details of observ­ ances."

[Com ment] 淋 放 Ifn fang," a native of the State of Lu, was a disciple of Confucius. His use of "易 y1" connotes "extravagant, or ostentatious."

[Reading] This section is interesting in that Confucius did not seem to di­ rectly answer the question raised by his disciple, Lin Fang, regarding the nature of ceremonies. Upon a careful reading of the remarks made by Con­ fucius, we find that through discussing the relation between form and sub­ stance, Confucius pointed to the very essence of ceremonies, that is, rever­ ence that humbles oneself with profound respect and deep sorrow for the ancestral spirits. Ceremonies enable people to feel deeper into the true gifts of inner tranquility and help reflect their soul. As such, reverence and sincer­ ity are more important than mere formality.

[3- 5] 子曰: "夷狄之有君,不如诸夏之亡也。"

3.5       The Master said, "Even the uncouth tribes have their kings, but, alas, the vassal states of our great land have none."

[Comment]  咦 狄 yf df" is a derogatory appellation used in ancient China to refer to tribal peoples: the nomad tribes of the " 戎 r6 ng" from the west, the "狄 d f"  from the north, the 咦  yf"  from the east, and '蛮 ma n"  from the south, all of which the Zhou Dynasty (11th cent.—221 BCE) regarded as "barbarians." " 诸 夏 zh Ci xia" connotes the Zhou and its various vassal states, known generally as " 中 国 zho ng gu6" (China). Here, Confucius in­ dicated his strong displeasure  at the feudal lords and princes of  vassal states  in their defiance against the "天子 tia n zT" (Son of Heaven) of Zhou.

[Reading] This section reveals Confucius'resentment of the disobedience and defiance the feudal lords and princes of vassal states displayed against the power of the Zhou ruling class. For Confucius, even the "barbarians" were aware of social hierarchy, whereas princes of the peripheries in central China would defiantly claim their own territorial powers to challenge the authority of Zhou, leading to the disintegration of the sociopolitical order.

[3-6]    季氏旅千泰山。子谓冉有曰:“女弗能救与?”对曰:“不能。“子曰:    "呜呼!曾谓泰山不如林放乎?”

3.6       The Ji family paid homage, making sacrificial offering to Mt. Taishan. The Master said to Ran You, "Can you not stop them from doing this?" Ran replied, "I can't." The Master said, "Alas! Do you mean to say that Mt. Taishan is not so perspicacious as Lin Fang?"

[Com ment] "旅 Iu" means "旅祭 lu jl" which translates as "to make a sacri­ fice". "祭山 jl shan" suggests "to pay homage and make sacrificial offering to sacred Mt. Taishan."" 冉有 ra n you" was a disciple of Confucius. "曾zeng" is an adverb, which can be translated as "Is it not so?"

[Reading] Located in Shandong Province, Mt. Taishan is worshipped as the foremost of the sacred mountains in all of China. Over the past dozens of centuries, the emperors of all dynasties came in succession to Mt. Taishan, to visit this auspicious mountain and make sacrificial offerings, praying for peace and prosperity for their dynasties and people. Specifically, on Mt. Taishan they would conduct the two most important  official state rituals of the traditional Chinese empire: Feng—o fferings to Heaven, and Shan—of­ferings to Earth. Together, these two offerings are known as Feng Shan to

refer to traditional Chinese worship of Heaven and Earth which hoped to en­ sure good fortune for the state and people. This section records Confucius'censuring of the Ji family for its gross transgression of the rules of proprie- ty—making sacrificial offering to Mt. Taishan was officially prescribed only for the "Son of Heaven" and princes.

[3- 7] 子曰:  “君子无所争。必也射乎!揖让而升,下而饮,其争也君子。"

3.7       The Master said, "The man of true virtue does not compete. If he must, he does so in an archery game. He bows amiably to his competitors before ascending the hall. Afterwards, he descends, again bowing to his competitors in reverence, and then does a ceremonious drinking of wine. This is indeed the competition of the noble man of superior moral force."

[Reading] This section describes the pleasant manner of " 君子Junzi" (the noble man of true virtue) when he must engage in competition with others. For Confucius, "The man of true virtue does not compete," but if he has to, he does so in a polite and courteous way. What is emphasized here is what Confucius would regard as "fair play," which focuses on decency and hon­ esty, leading to the formation of a code of chivalry popular in his time.

[3- 8] 子夏问曰: "  '巧 笑倩兮, 美目盼兮, 素以为绚兮' , 何谓也?”子曰:           "绘事后素。"曰:            “礼后乎?”子曰:    “起予者商也! 始可 与言《诗》巳矣。"

3.8       Zixia quoted the following from the Classic of Odes: The pretty dimples of her artful smile! The well-defined black and white of her eye!

The plain ground for the colors! (quoted from James Leggs'translation) "What do these lines mean?" he asked. The Master said, "A pretty painting is done on plain white paper." Zixia further questioned, "Does that mean the rites of propriety follow innocence and virtue?" The Master replied, "Ah, Bu Shang, you have brought out my meaning. Now, I can begin to discuss the Odes with you."

[Comment] "巧笑倩兮 q ia o xiao qian XI," "美目盼兮 me i mu  pan XI,"

“ 素以为绚兮 s u yT wef xuan xT." The first two lines were quoted from

“国风 g u6 feng" (Airs of the States) in the Classic of Odes. The third is believed to be a line from a poem by an anonymous author.

[Reading] In this section, Confucius praised Zixia for his potential for quick learning. From Confucius'statement that "A pretty painting is done first on plain white paper," Zixia came to understand that virtue precedes rites and proprieties. In other words, rites and proprieties are substantiated by virtue and innocence.

[3- 9] 子曰:  “夏礼,吾能言之,杞不足征也;殷礼,吾能言之, 宋不足征也。文献不足故也。足,则吾能征之矣。"

3.9       The Master said, "I could talk about the ceremonies of the Xia Dynasty, but the historical documents the State of Qi kept are not sufficient to attest my words. I could talk about the ceremonies of the Shang Dynasty, but the historical documents the State of Song kept are not sufficient to attest my words. This is because these two states failed to keep enough records and wise men of extensive historical knowledge. Otherwise I would be able to support my words."

[Comment] " 夏 xia" means "the Xia Dynasty" (approximately 2070— 1600 BC). " 杞 qT"  refers to a feudal vassal state set up by King Wu of Zhou, which was inhabited by descendants of the Xia Dynasty. Meanwhile,

” 宋 s o ng" refers to "a feudal vassal state set up by King Wu of Zhou for descendants of the Shang Dynasty (1600-1046 BC)." " 文 w 的 " means "historical documents that record the rites of propriety of the these ancient dynasties." " 献 xia n" translates as "wise men of extensive historical knowl­ edge."

[Reading] This section describes two things. First, Confucius had a good knowledge of the rites of propriety of the Xia, Shang, and Zhou Dynasties and he wished that feudal lords and princes of vassal states, as well as the com­ mon people would follow these rites. Second, there were too many cases that these proprieties were transgressed. Worse still there was a dire lack of historians who were familiar with these rites. Consequently, it was hard to attest his knowledge of these rules of propriety with authentic histori- cal records. This is another way of saying that Confucius'attitude towards knowledge, particularly knowledge of history was serious and cautious.

[3- 10] 子曰: “齐帝自既灌而往者,吾不欲观之矣。"

3.10     The Master said, "I have no wish to continue to watch the Great Sacri­ fice after the libation was poured."

[Com ment] ' 谛 dl" was the Great Sacrifice, a ceremony which was held once every five years only by "the Son of Heaven" in Confucius' time. "灌guan" is used homophonically as "裸 l u6" to refer to the rites of pouring a special kind of wine on the ground to welcome divinities. Here, Confucius was criticizing those who do not show deference during the Great Sacrifice.

[Reading] Like the previous sections, this one reveals, once again, Confu­ cius'indignation at the transgression of the norm of proprieties in the State of Lu. As a vassal state, Lu hosted the Great Sacrifice, which was the exclu­ sive privilege of the Son of Heaven. In doing so, the State of Lu defied the authority of Zhou and set a very bad example for others.

[3- 11]  或问谛之说。子曰:           “不知也。知其说者之千天下也,其  如示诸斯乎!”指其掌。

3.11     Someone asked for the meaning of the Great Sacrifice. The Master said, "I have no knowledge of it. But he who knew it would find it easy to govern the world just like putting things here," pointing to the palm of his hand.

[Com ment] "不知也 bu zhT y色" means "do not know; have no knowledge of ... " Confucius did not want to go into detail and so he pretended not to know about it. "示 s h1" is used interchangeably as "视s h1," meaning "to see," while ' 掌 zha ng" translates as "the palm of one's hand."

[Reading] This section discusses the significance of the Great Sacrifice. In addition, it also implies that it is actually not too difficult to govern the world. When asked if he knew about the Great Sacrifice, Confucius pre­tended that he did not. This is his way of criticizing the transgression by the State of Lu of the norm of propriety. Meanwhile, Confucius quickly added that anyone who knew the meaning of the Great Sacrifice would find it easy to rule the world. This is another way of saying that real knowledge of the role of the Great Sacrifice would help restore the rites of propriety, which had been willfully violated by vassal states.

[3- 12] 祭如在, 祭神如神在。子曰 :       “吾不与祭,如不祭。"

3.12     Sacrificing to the ancestors as if they were present. Sacrificing to the spirits as they were present. The Master said, "If I did not personally offer the sacrifice but someone did so on my behalf, I feel like not being present at the great ancestral worship ceremony at all."

[Comment] "祭 jl" translates as "ancestral sacrifice," while " 祭如在 jl ru zai" implies "making a sacrifice to the ancestors as if they were present."

[Reading] In this section, Confucius emphasized one more time that sin­ cerity and reverence were essential to the ancestral sacrifice. Therefore, he would make sure that he were present in person at this important occasion. For Confucius, ancestral sacrifice is more about moral consideration than it is about religiosity.

[3- 13] 王孙贾问曰: ”与其媚千奥,宁媚千灶,何谓也?”子曰:


3.13     "'It's better to sacrifice to the god of the kitchen than to the god of the family shrine.'What do you think of this?" asked Wang Sunjia. The Master replied, "Not really. If you offend Heaven, you will have no one to pray to."

[Com ment] "王孙贾 w6 ng sun gu" was a minister in the State of Wei.

"媚m苛 means " 谄媚c ha n m创" (flattery, or sycophancy)."奥 ao" refers to the northwest part of a room, which, in ancient times, was a place in the home reserved for those who were greatly respected. However, in a broader sense, the location is revered as a place of divinity in the house. " 灶 zoo " means "kitchen," where the god of kitchen was worshipped. Here, in this context, both "奥的" and " 灶 zoo " are used in a metaphorical sense. With these remarks, Confucius stated that it was wrong to go against the norm of the proprieties.

[Reading] This section shows that Confucius was serious about observ­ ing the norm of proprieties rather than to fawn or to seek favor. With the remarks thus made, Confucius strongly believed it was wrong to go against the norm of the proprieties.

[3- 14] 子曰: “周监千二代,郁郁乎文哉!吾从周。"

3.14     The Master said, "The Zhou Dynasty has enriched its forms of proprie­ ties, based on the rich culture of the two previous dynasties. How splendid and elegant! I follow Zhou."

[Comment] "监 jia n" means "视 s h1" (to observe, to see). "二代 扫da i" refers to the Xia and Shang Dynasties prior to the Zhou Dynasty. "郁郁 yu yu" suggests "flourishing, luxuriant, blooming." Here, the phrase implies "ornamentation, or flowery expressions."

[Reading] In this section, Confucius voiced his praise of the grandeur of

the norm of proprieties of Zhou. For him, the Zhou Dynasty had reached the zenith of perfection in the establishment of the rules of propriety since the Xia and Shang Dynasties.

[3- 15] 子入太庙,每事问。或曰:" 孰谓郪人之子知礼乎? 入太庙, 每事问。"子闻之,曰:  “是礼也。"

3.15     When the Master entered the Grand Temple, he always asked about everything. Someone said, "Who would say that the son of Shu Lianghe knows rituals? Didn't he ask about everything upon entering the Grand Temple?" Hearing this, the Master said, "That is precisely what the rules of propriety are about."

[Comment] "太庙 ta i miao" refers to the Grand Temple of the Duke of Zhou. "孰 s hu" means "谁 s hu f" (who), while  '椰人 z6 u r的 " refers to

Confucius'father "叔梁纥s h□ li6ng he", who was a ministerial-level of-

ficial in the State of Lu.

[Reading] Confucius was sincere and reverential about sacrificial ceremo­ nies. Therefore, he never deemed it a shame to inquire for details about rites and rituals. Although he was in possession of abundant knowledge of sacrifi­ cial ceremonies, he remained humble and modest, which shows his deferen­ tial attitude of deep respect for the norm of the proprieties of Zhou.

[3- 16] 子曰: “射不主皮,为力不同科,古之道也。"

3.16     The Master said, "In archery it is not imperative to pierce through the leather surface on the target because people do not have the same level of strength. This is the way of archery in the old days."

[Com ment] "为力 we i 11" can be translated as "to build strength, or to use strength."

[Reading] In this section Confucius discusses the principle of archery. As one of the Six Arts required of the nobility in the Zhou Dynasty, archery itself became a part of the norms of propriety. (The other five arts were rites, music, charioteering, calligraphy, and mathematics.) Using archery as a metaphor, Confucius argued that efforts made to one's fullest in learning about rituals and proprieties should be appreciated and recognized.

[3- 17] 子贡欲去告朔之饥羊,子曰:" 赐也! 尔爱其羊,我爱其礼。”

3.17     Zigong wanted to discontinue the tradition of sacrificing sheep to inau­ gurate the first of each month. The Master said, "Well, you love the sheep; I love the ceremony."

[Comment] Zigong was a disciple of Confucius. " 朔 s huo " means "the first day of each month" according to the Chinese lunar calendar. "告朔g的shuo" refers to the Zhou imperial tradition of issuing a lunar calendar for the following year by "the Son of Heaven" of Zhou. 节气羊 XI yang" de­ scribes "sheep killed but not cooked yet" which were to be used at sacrificial ceremonies.

[Reading] This section demonstrates how serious Confucius was about pre­ serving every detail of the norm of sacrificial ceremony. As discussed previ­ ously, Confucius believed sincerity and reverence constituted the essence

of sacrificial ceremony, which in turn needed to be meticulously manifested and presented by all details as required.

[3- 18] 子曰:            ”事君尽礼,人以为谄也。"

3.18     The Master said, "If one fully observes the rites of propriety in serving his prince, alas, people unfortunately would view him as a sycophant."

[Comment] " 事 s h1" can be used as a verb to mean "to serve, or to attend to." "尽礼 j1n l'f" translates as "in full observation of the rites of propriety," while " 谄 c h如 " imp lies "flattery, sycophancy."

[Reading] In this section Confucius disclosed his frustration at the unde­ sirable sociopolitical reality in which he, while striving to serve the prince by fully observing the rites of propriety, was satirized by others as fawning over the ruler. With these remarks, Confucius pointed to the corrupted social climate and the fact that the hierarchical relations between princes and min­ isters were damaged beyond repair. Few would even bother to attend to the norm of proprieties that regulated the relationship between them.

[3- 19] 定公问:        “君使臣,臣事君,如之何?“孔子对曰:        “君使臣以礼,臣事君以忠。"

3.19     Duke Ding of the State of Lu asked how a prince should employ his ministers and how a minister should serve his prince. The Master replied,"The prince should employ his ministers in accordance with the rites of propriety, whereas ministers should serve their prince with allegiance and faithfulness."

[Reading] This section discusses the Confucian conception of an ideal rela­ tionship between a prince and his ministers. For Confucius, if both could ex­ ercise their obligation to the best of their ability, a good relationship would be secured.

[3- 20] 子曰: "《关睢》乐而不淫,哀而不伤。"

3.20     The Master said, "Guanju is beamming with pleasure without appear­ ing lustful and with sorrow without sounding excessively lamentable."

[Comment] "《关睢》g ua n ju" is the title of the first poem in the famous Book of Odes.

[Reading] This section records Confucius'praise of the pure beauty of

”《 关 睢 》 g ua n ju". What is interesting about his words is Confucius'con­ cept of the doctrine of the mean as expressed in the lines: "pleasure without appearing lustful and with sorrow without sounding excessively  lamenta­ ble." For Confucius, it is important to strike a balance between  the extremes of excess.

[3- 21] 哀公问社千宰我。宰我对曰: 周人以栗,曰使民战栗。"子闻之,曰: 往不咎。"



3.21     Duke Ai of Lu asked about the materials used to make tablets at the altars for sacrificial ceremonies. Zai Wo said, "The Xia Dynasty used pines, the Shang Dynasty used cypress, and the Zhou Dynasty used chestnut, all in the hope of causing people to be in awe." Hearing this, the Master said, "Do not bother explaining what has already been done; do not try to redo what has already been done; do not place blame on that which has already been done."

[Comment] "哀公 a i gong" refers to Duke Ai of the State of Lu, and "社

s陡 " translates as "spirits of the ground." In the context of this passage, the phrase refers to "tablets used at sacrificial ceremonies for the spirits of the ground." These tablets are also known as "社主 she zhu" (the owner of the

tablets). "宰我 za i w6"          was a disciple of Confucius.

[Reading] In this section Confucius reproved Zai Wo, his disciple, for pre­ tending to know what he actually did not know about the materials used to make tablets at the altars for sacrificial ceremonies during the Xia, Shang, and Zhou Dynasties.

[3- 22] 子曰:            “管仲之器小哉!”

或曰:            “管仲俭乎?”曰:            “管仲有三归,官 事不摄,焉 得 俭?     ” “然则管仲知礼乎?"曰:                   “邦君树塞门,管氏亦树塞门。邦君


3.22     The Master said, "Guan Zhong's capacity is indeed limited."

Someone asked,"Was Guan Zhong not economical?"The Master said,"Guan Zhong has three homes and his officers do not perform double duties. How can he be called economical?"

"Do you think Guan Zhong understood the rites of propriety?" The Mas- ter said, "The princes of the states place a screen at their door to block the

view. Guan Zhong did the same at his door. The princes, in order to befriend neighboring states, set up an earthen platform on which to place ritual de­ vices and wine utensils. Guan Zhong did the same. If Guan Zhong knew the rites of propriety, who else does not know them?"

[Comment] "管仲g的 n zhong" was a prime minister in the State of

Qi. " 三归 son guT" means "three homes," yet in a broader sense, " 三归son       guT" may suggest "three families." " 摄 s he "           translates as '兼职 jia n zhf" (moonlight, or to work at another job in addition to one's full-time job). '塞门se        m 的 " refers to a special screen used to block the view at a gate, while " 反拈 f a n dian" is an earthen platform on which are placed wine utensils and devices for sacrifices and which is located between two principle columns of a hall.

[Reading] In this section Confucius satirized Guan Zhong for having a lim­ ited capacity. Furthermore, he criticized Guan Zhong for being extravagant and also ignorant of the rules of propriety.

[3-       23]       子语鲁大师乐, 曰:           “乐其可知也:始作,翁如也;从之, 纯如也,瞰如也,绎如也;以成。"

3.23     Talking with the Head Musician of Lu, the Master said, "We can under­ stand how music is played. At the beginning music rises up in unison. Then it moves in pure and clear notes, so pleasant and distinct! Afterwards it flows harmoniously without pause before finally proceeding to the conclusion."

[Comment] "语yu" means "to tell," while "鲁大师 l u tai    shi" refers to "the Head Musician of the State of Lu." " 翁如xi ru" suggests "music rising up,"

“从 zo ng "  connotes "that which follows," whereas " 纯如c h un           ru" can be translated as "pure and clear." Meanwhile, " 瞰 如 jia o ru"            denotes "dis-

tinct, pleasant and harmonious." Lastly, "绎如y1ru"           refers to "music being played in harmony and flowing without breaks."

[Reading] This section describes Confucius'knowledge of how music func­ tions. It is indeed amazing that Confucius was familiar with the process of playing music. This section also shows the reader Confucius'ability to ap­ preciate and enjoy music at a high level.

[3- 24] 仪封人请见, 曰: “君 子 之 至千斯也,吾 未尝不得见也。" 从者见之。出曰:  “二三子何患千丧乎?天下之无道也久矣,天  将以夫子为木铎。"

3.24     The border administrator at Yi asked for an audience with the Mas­ ter and said, "Whenever noble of true virtue come here, I always have the privilege of being introduced to them." So, the Master's followers sent  him in. When he returned from the interview, he said to the Master's dis­ ciples, "Young men, do not be distressed by your master losing office. The world has been in chaos for a long time, but Heaven will use your master as a bell to awaken everyone."

[Comment] " 仪 y1" is the name of a town in the border area of the State of Wei and "封人传ng           r 的 " refers to an administrator appointed to govern a frontier area. "请见 qTng      jian" translates as "to ask to be introduced to Con­ fucius" while "从者 c6 ng        zh扩 refers            to the followers of Confucius, his

disciples. "见之 jia n zhT''connotes the phrase "to be made to be introduced to Confucius," while "木铎 mu du6" refers to a kind of bell used to pro­mote verdicts.

[Reading] This section quotes the words of the border administrator at Yi to declare that the true virtue of Confucius would last forever throughout ages. In his time, Confucius was already a man of significant social influence. He was respected by many including the border administrator at Yi for his virtu­ ous deeds and moral disposition, particularly for his impressive knowledge of the rules of propriety.

[3- 25] 子谓《韶》: “尽   美矣,又 尽 善 也 。" 谓 《 武 》 :        “尽美矣, 未尽善也。"

3.25     The Master, speaking of Shao dance and music, said, "It was consum­ mately beautiful and superbly good." Speaking of Wu dance and music, the Master said, "It was consummately beautiful but not superbly good."

[Comment] "韶s ho o " was a kind of dance and music popular in the times of "舜s hu n" (Sage Emperor Shun is believed to have lived between 2294 and 2184 BCE.). "武 wu"           refers to a kind of dance and music popular in the times of King Wu of Zhou between approximately 1046 BC and 1042 BC.

[Reading] In this section Confucius discussed the dance and music of both Shao and Wu and highlighted their difference. Obviously, Confucius was concerned not only about the aesthetics of such dance and music, but about their content as well.

[3- 26] 子曰:“居    上 不 宽 ,为 礼 不 敬 ,临 丧不哀,吾 何 以 观 之 哉? ”

3.26     The Master said, "In high position he is not tolerant; in exercising cer­ emonies he is not sincere; in attending a funeral he is without sorrow. How can I bear to be with such people?"

[Comment] "居上 ju shang" refers to those in high position, while "宽 ku如“ implies"宽容 kua n r6ng"(to be tolerant) and "大度do du" (forgiving)."临lin" means "to participate" or "to experience."

[Reading] In this section Confucius discussed personal behavior, particu­ larly behaviors of those in high office. Confucius argued for governing a state with moral force and the rules of propriety. As such, those who govern should possess a high level of moral disposition. Otherwise, there would be no good government, which unfortunately was the situation in Confucius' time and which greatly disappointed him.